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Core Pulse Technology

Core Pulse Technology & Desulphation Process Introduction

1) Research on the main reasons for lead-acid battery failure:

The anode of lead-acid battery is spongy Pb, the cathode is PbO2, and the electrolyte is H2SO4. When the battery is discharged, the anode plate is oxidized to PbSO4 and the cathode is reduced to PbSO4 as shown in the formula below:

Lead Acid Battery

Therefore, the lead sulfate is the inevitable product of lead-acid battery discharge or self-discharge, and with the increase of discharge depth, the amount of lead sulfate will be increased, it will adhere to the electrode surface to form lead sulfate coating. Initially, the quantity of new lead sulfate particles is extremely small, i.e. it is large in dispersity and surface area and energy, the system is unstable and the solubility of small crystals is greater than that of ordinary crystals. When the normal battery is charged, PbSO4 is reduced to lead, crystallized and dissolved. If the battery is not used and maintained properly, such as long-term shelving or undercharging, deep discharge and water replenishment failure timely, a thick and hard PbSO4 recrystallized crystal will gradually be formed on the anode of battery. This kind of PbSO4 crystal is inactive and low in solubility, which will increase the resistance of battery and reduce the charging acceptance ability. The traditional charging method is difficult to reduce and dissolve it. When charging, it mainly reacts with electrolytic water, and a large number of gases are precipitated. This phenomenon is called "irreversible sulfation", which is the main factor causing the early loss and even the failure of battery capacity.

The cathode of lead-acid battery also produces sulphation. The α-PbO2 crystal in cathode of lead-acid battery is similar to the PbSO4 lattice. When discharging or self-discharging, α-PbO2 may be used as the seed crystal (nucleus) of PbSO4 to form compact PbSO4 crystal, which is the same as the anode. This crystal will gradually become larger and cover the surface of PbO2, so that H2SO4 is hard to diffuse the depth of active substance, the electrochemical reaction only occurs in limit depth, and the battery capacity is lost.

Some of the batteries with serious sulfation are accompanied by severe dehydration and great internal resistance. After adding water, the measured acidity of the electrolyte is close to neutral, so that the charging can not be carried out and result in battery failure and scrap.

2) Research on eliminating sulphate crystal without damaging pole plate by means of composite resonance pulse technology based on the principle of atomic physics

atomic physics

According to the principle of atomic physics, sulfur ions have five different energy levels, and the ions at the metastable levels often tend to move to the most stable covalent bond level. At the lowest energy level (i.e., the covalent bond state), sulfur exists in the form of a circular molecule containing 8 atoms. The eight-atom circulating molecular model is a very stable combination that is difficult to break, and the service life of lead-acid batteries depends on our ability to remove these aggregates. To break the constraint of the accumulated layers of these lead sulfate crystals, it is necessary to improve the energy levels of atoms to a certain extent, so that the outer electrons of the atoms can be activated to the next higher energy band, thus releasing the bondage between the atoms. Each specific energy level state has a unique resonance frequency, and specific energy must be transferred to the energy level to make the excited atom jump to a higher energy level state. Too-low energy can not meet the energy requirements for the transition, but too-high energy will make the transition atom in an unstable state and fall back to the original energy level at any time. Therefore, the process must be repeated until it reaches the most active energy level state. Only in this way can the sulfate accumulation layer which is in a stable covalent bond state be converted back to the most unstable lead sulfate particles, and gradually peel off from the battery plate through charging and participate in the electrochemical reaction again.

From the perspective of the solid state physics, all the insulating layers can be broken down under sufficiently high voltage. Once the insulating layer is broken, the thick lead sulphate will be conductive. If transient high voltage is applied to the high-resistivity insulating layer, large lead sulfate crystals can be broken down. If the high voltage is short enough and the current is limited, the charging current should be strictly limited and a large amount of gas will not be formed if the insulating layer is broken down. The gas evolution volume of the battery is in proportional to the charging current and time. If the pulse width is short enough and the duty cycle is large enough, the thick lead sulfate crystal can be broken down. Under these conditions, the simultaneous micro-charging can not form gas evolution, thus eliminating the vulcanization of the battery and avoiding other structural damage to the battery, which is a true non-destructive repair pulse technology.

All crystals have a specific resonant frequency after the molecular structure is determined, and this resonant frequency is related to the crystal size. The larger the crystal, the lower the resonant frequency. Composite resonance pulse technology is to find the resonance frequency of lead sulfate crystals by controlling the change of sweeping frequency and pulse waveform, and properly controlling the value of pulse current. The lead sulfate crystals on the electrode surface are bombarded and oscillated by continuously varying voltage pulses, so that lead sulfate crystals can enter a metastable state, then break up, loosen, dissolve. Therefore, the electrode surface covered with hard lead sulfate crystal can restore its activity, and the lead sulfate can have normal electrochemical reactions during charging.

On the basis of the same molecular structure (lead sulfate crystals), the larger the crystal, the lower the resonance frequency. During charging, a steep front pulse is given, which leads to abundant high-order harmonics. The lead sulphate crystals will be dissolved easily due to the resonance. The lower the frequency of high-level harmonic pulse, the larger the amplitude, the larger the energy obtained by the lead sulfate crystals with the lower harmonic frequency, the smaller energy obtained by the lead sulfate with the smaller volume. Therefore, the larger lead sulfate crystals are easier to dissolve. This is the core principle of composite pulse desulfurization technology.

3) General principle of lead-acid battery recovery

When the 2 electrodes of the recovery system are connected to the cathode and anode of the battery, the special pulse wave produced by the recovery system will act on the two electrodes of the battery continuously and change the movement state of e and H+. Therefore, the lead sulfate crystals which can not be dissociated under the normal charge electric field are continuously dissociated into Pb2+ and SO42-, that is, the PbSO4 crystals are decomposed under the action of pulse wave according to the charging law and return to the solution after dissolution. After the irreversible sulfate on the electrode is completely removed, the battery plate is activated, the internal resistance is reduced, the capacity is recovered or partially recovered, and the charging efficiency is improved. Therefore, the recover process of battery capacity is an electrochemical process.

4) What makes this technology so unique and effective is a distinct pulse waveform. This Smart Pulse:

  • Has a strictly-controlled rise time, smartly changeable pulse-width, frequency and amplitude of current and voltage pulse.
  • Different frequencies and harmonic waveforms in pulse charging resonate with PbSO4 crystals to be broken up;
  • Online/offline restore of desulphation technology, suits for all lead-acid batteries failure due to sulphation;
  • Best desulphation effect and can be recycled many times, restore 90% above as new one ;
  • No damaged to the positive and negative plates of the battery, improves battery efficiency and lengthens battery life ;
  • More than 20 years of applications and field validated in Military and All industry with high performance and being Trusted

Smart Pulse

Pulse Technology & Desulphation Process

-Our Self-owned patents technology of Smart Resonant Pulse

-No damaged to Plates when battery restored by our smart Pulse